SharePoint 2010 Fab 40 Templates?
Note (July 6, 2011): a number of SharePoint 2010 application templates appeared on Microsoft downloads site recently. Some are similar to earlier Fab 40 templates but they call them Application Templates for Health Organizations (make sure you read the requirements as they seem to require enterprise version). You can find links to them (19 total) here or here. There are also Classroom and Study Group Templates which work with both foundation and server. This one is available from the office.com on the create dialog from SharePoint.
In SharePoint 2007, Microsoft released a total of 4o templates for free download to help start specific sites or lists for certain (popular) business processes. However, MS did not offer these for the 2010 version. You can read the official MS word on this from Samantha Robertson at http://blogs.technet.com/b/tothesharepoint/archive/2010/08/18/sharepoint-2010-products-upgrade-and-the-fabulous-40-application-templates.aspx
Since many users had already built solutions based on these templates, there was a popular demand for an updated version. TechSolutions (Khalil) was generous to upgrade the 2007 templates and upload them for free. You may download the server versions at: http://www.techsolutions.net/Blog/tabid/65/EntryId/17/Fab-40-Templates-for-MOSS-2010.aspx
and for foundation: http://techsolutions.net/Blog/tabid/65/EntryId/18/Fab-40-for-Sharepoint-Foundation.aspx
Make sure to read the readme files and follow discussions at the above sites for specific issues.
Note: the SharePoint 2007 templates from Microsoft are at: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windowsserver/sharepoint/bb407286.aspx and the page has been updated with a note on availability and upgrading to 2010 (.stp files are not upgradeable).